Collagen and science

Collagen peptides

What makes Collagen peptides so important?

The most important properties of collagen are its unparalleled benefits for the health and care sectors. This is why it has become a key ingredient in beverages, dietary supplements  and cosmetics.

The benefits of collagen peptides for health and beauty has been confirmed and recognised for years. Scientific studies have shown that 10 grams a day or even less have a positive effect on joint, bone and skin health.

Collagen has been subject to scientific research over the years and has been shown to be free of adverse side effects.

What does science say about Collagen

Further information on the benefits of collagen can be found in the following scientific papers:

Papers about joint & bone health

(1) Dubourg,G.,(2013).Targeting bone health. The world of food ingredients, February 2013.

(2) Kim, H.K., Kim, M.G. and Leem, K.H. (2013). Osteogenic activity of collagen peptide via ERK/MAPK pathway mediated boosting of collagen synthesis and its therapeutic efficacy in osteoporotic bone by back-scattered electron imaging and microarchitecture analysis. Molecules, Vol. 18, 15474-15489.

(3) Leem, K.H., Lee, S., Jang, A. and Kim, H.K. (2013). Porcine skin gelatin hydrolysate promotes longitudinal bone growth in adolescent rats. Journal of Medicinal Food, Vol. 16, Iss. 5, 447-453.

(4) Kim, H.K., Kim, M.G. and Leem, K.H. (2014). Collagen hydrolysates increased osteogenic gene expressions via a MAPK signaling pathway in MG-63 human osteoblasts. Food & Function, Vol. 5, Iss. 3, 573-578.

(5) JunLi Liu, Bing Zhang, ShuJun Song, Ming Ma, ShaoYan Si, YiHu Wang, BingXin Xu, Kai Feng, JiGong Wu and YanChuan Guo. (2014). Bovine collagen peptides compounds promote the proliferation and differentiation of MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts, Vol.9, Iss. 6, 1-6.

(6) Adam, M., Spacek, P., Hulejova, H., Galianova, A. and Blahos, J. (1996). Postmenopausal osteoporosis. Treatment with calcitonin and a diet rich in collagen peptides. Casopis Lékaru Ceských, Vol. 135, Iss. 3, 74-78.

(7) Martin-Bautista, E., Martin-Matillas, M., Martin-Lagos, J.A., Miranda-Leon, M.T., Muñoz-Torres, M., Ruiz-Requena, E., Rivero, M., Quer, J., Puigdueta, I., and Campoy, C. (2011). A nutritional intervention study with hydrolyzed collagen in pre-pubertal spanish children: influence on bone modeling biomarkers. Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol. 24, Iss. 3-4,147-153.

(8) Trč, T. and Bohmová, J. (2011). Efficacy and tolerance of enzymatic hydrolysed collagen (EHC) vs. glucosamine sulphate (GS) in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis (KOA). International Orthopaedics, Vol. 35, Iss. 3, 341-348.

(9) Benito-Ruiz, P., Camacho-Zambrano, M.M., Carrillo-Arcentales, J.N., Mestanza-Peralta, M.A., Vallejo-Flores, C.A., Vargas-López, S.V., Villacís-Tamayo, R.A. and Zurita-Gavilanes, L.A. (2009). A randomized controlled trial on the efficacy and safety of a food ingredient, collagen hydrolysate, for improving joint comfort. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, Vol. 60, Iss. 1, 99-113.

(10) Clark, K.L., Sebastianelli, W., Flechsenhar, K.R., Aukermann, D.F., Meza, F., Millard, R.L., Deitch, J.R., Sherbondy, P.S., and Albert, A. (2008). 24-Week study on the use of collagen hydrolysate as a dietary supplement in athletes with activity-related joint pain. Current Medical Research and Opinions, Vol. 24, Iss. 5, 1485-1496.

(11) Schunck, M., Schulze, C.H. and Oesser, S. (2006). Disparate efficacy of collagen hydrolysate and glucosamine on the extracellular matrix metabolism of articular chondrocytes. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, Vol. 14, Suppl. 114, 199.

(12) Knox NutraJoint, (2000). New study shows gelatine supplementation may help improve knee function in people with mild osetoarthritis. Partner in motion.

(13) F.Guillerminet, H. Beaupied, V. Fabien-Soulé, D.Tomé, C-L. Benhamou, C. Roux, A. Blais. (2010). Collagen peptides improve bone metabolism and biomechanical parameters in ovariectomized mice: an in vitro and in vivo study. Bone 46 (3): 827-834.

(14) T.E. McAlindon, M. Nuite, N.Krishnan, R. Ruthazer, L.L. Price, D. Bursteien, J. Griffith, K. Flechsenhar. (2011). Change in knee ostearthirtis cartilage detected by delayed gadolinium enhanced magnetic resonance imaging following treatment with collagen.hydrolysate: a pilot randomized controlled trial. OARSI – ICRS Volume 19, Issue 4.

(15) F.Guillerminet,V. Fabien-Soulé,P.C. Even, D.Tomé, C-L. Benhamou, C. Roux, A. Blais. (2012). Hydrolyzed collagen improves bone status and prevents bone loss in ovariectomized C3H/HeN mice. Osteoporosis International 23 (7): 1909-1919.

(16) M. Schunck, S. Oesser. (2013). Specific collagen peptides benefit the biosynthesis of matrix molecules of tendons and ligaments. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 10 (Suppl 1).

(17) J.X. Jiang,S. Yu, Q.R. Huang, X.L Zhang, C.Q. Zhang, J.L Zhou, J. Prawitt .(2014). Collagen peptides improve knee osteoarthritis in elderly women. Agro Food Industry Hi Tech 25 (2): 19-23.

Papers about skin health

(1)V. Zague. (2008). A new view concerning the effects of collagen hdyrolysate intake on skin properties. Arch Dermatol Res.

(2) V. Zague, V. de Freitas, M. da Cosat Rosa, G. Alvares de Castro, R. G. Jaeger, G. M.Machado-Santelli. 2010. Collagen Hydrolysate Intake Increases Skin Collagen Expression and Suppresses Matrix Mettaloproteinase 2 Activity

(3) Proksch, E., Schunck, M., Zague, V., Segger, D., Degwert, J. and Oesser, S. (2014). Oral intake of specific bioactive collagen peptides reduces skin wrinkles and increases dermal matrix synthesis. Skin Pharmacol. Physiol., Vol 27, Iss. 3, 113-119.

(4) Choi, S.Y., Ko, E.J., Lee, Y.H., Kim, B.G., Shin, H.J., Seo, D.B., Lee, S.J., Kim, B.J. and Kim, M.N. (2013). Effects of collagen tripeptide supplement on skin properties: A prospective, randomized, controlled study. Journal of Cosmetic and Laser Therapy – online ahead of print.

(5) Kantor, I., Donikyan, L.A., Simon, E. And Wollschlaeger, B. (2002). Results of a study evaluating the use of a dietary supplement formula in the management of age-related skin changes in women with moderate to severe wrinkling of the periorbital area. The Journal of the American Nutraceutical Association, Vol. 5, Iss. 2, 10-19.

(6) Proksch, E., Segger, D., Degwert, J., Schunck, M., Zague, V. and Oesser, S. (2014). Oral supplementation of specific collagen peptides has beneficial effects on human skin physiology: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Skin Pharmacol. Physiol., Vol. 27, Iss. 1, 47-55.

(7) Ohara, H., Ito, K., Iida, H. And Matsumoto, H. (2009). Improvement in the moisture content of the stratum corneum following 4 weeks of collagen hydrolysate ingestion. Nippon Shokuhin Kagaku Kogaku Kaishi (J. Soc. Food Sci. Technol.) Vol. 56, Iss. 3, 137-145.

Papers about sports nutrition

(1) Melvin W. 2005. Dietary Supplements and Sports Performance: Amino Acids. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2: p63-67

(2) Newholme.E and Co. 1992. Physical and mental fatigue: Metabolic mechanisms and importance of plasma amino acids. British Medical Bulletin, 48: 477-95

(3) Matsumoto Keitaro and Co. 2008. Branched-Chain Amino acid supplementation increases the lactate threshold during an incremental exercise test in trained individuals. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol.55.p52-58

(4) Mittleman KD and Co. 1998. Branched-chain amino acids prolong exercise during heat stress in men and women. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 30 (1): 83-91

(5) Louard RJ and Co. 1990. Effect of infused branched-chain-amino acids on muscle and whole-body amino acid metabolism in man. Clin Sci. 79 (5): 457-466

(6) Blomstrand E and Co. 2006. Branched-chain-amino acids activate key enzymes in protein synthesis after physical exercise. J Nutr. 136 (I): 269S-73S

(7) Kimball SR and Co. 2006. Signaling pathways and molecular mechanisms through which branched-chain amino acids mediate translational control of protein synthesis. J Nutr. 136 (I): 227S-31S

(8) Williams M.H. 2005. Nutrition for health, Fitness & Sports. Boston: McGraw-Hill

(9) Kim S.K and Co. 2001. Purification and characterization of antioxydative peptides from bovine skin. Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Vol 34. 239

(10) Kjaer M and Co. 2005. Metabolic activity and collagen turnover in human tendon in response to physical activity. J Musculosketet neuronal Interact.5: 41-52

(11) Langberg H and Co. 1999. Type I collagen synthesis and degradation in peritendinuous tissue after exercise determined by microdialysis in humans. Journal of Physiology.521: 299-306

(12) Miller B.F and Co. 2005. Coordinated collagen and muscle protein synthesis in human patella tendon and quadriceps muscle after exercise. J Physiol.567 (3). 1021-1033

(13) Clark, K.L. and Co. 2008. 24-Week study on the use of collagen hydrolysate as a dietary supplement in athletes with activity-related joint pain. Current Medical Research and Opinions, 24 (5): 1485-1496.

(14) Castell LM and Co. 1996. European Journal of Applied Physiology.73: 488-490

(15) Krieger W James and Co.2006. Effects of variation in protein and carbohydrate intake on body mass and composition during energy restriction: a meta-regression. Am J Clin Nutr.83:260.74

(16) Layman K Donald and Co.2007. Dietary protein and exercise have additive effects on body composition during weight loss in adult women. Journal of Nutrition. 1903-1910

(17) Faipoux R and Co. 2008. Proteins activate satiety-related neuronal pathways in the brainstem and hypothalamus of rats. The Journal of Nutrition.1172-1178

(18) Pupovac J and Co. 2002. Dietary peptides induce satiety via cholecystokinin-A and peripheral pioid receptors in rats. The Journal of Nutrition.132: 2775-2780

(19) Veldhorst M A.B and Co. 2009. A breakfast with alpha-lactalbumin, gelatin, or gelatin+TRP lowers energy intake at lunch compared with a breakfast with casein, soy, whey, or why-GMP. Clinical Nutrition. 28. 147-155

(20) Hochstenbach-Waelen Ananda and Co. 2009. Single-Protein Casein and Gelatin Diets affect energy expenditure similarly but substrate balance and appetite differently in adults. Journal of Nutrition. 139.p2285-2292

(21) Manninen AH. 2004. Protein hydrolysates in sports and exercise. Journal of sports science and medicine.3/ 60-63

(22) Van Loon Luc JC and Co. 2000. Plasma insulin responses after ingestion of different amino acid or protein mixtures with carbohydrate. Am J Clin Nutr. 72: 96-105

(23) Van Loon Luc JC and Co. 2000. Ingestion of protein hydrolysate and amino acid-carbohydrate mixtures increases postexercise plasma insulin responses in men. American Society of Nutritional Sciences. p2508-2513

(24) Houston Mark C. 2002. The role of vascular biology, nutrition and nutraceuticals in the prevention and treatment of hypertension. The Journal of the American Nutraceutical Association. Suppl 1

(25 Herregods Griet. 2011. Activity andpurification of ACE inhibitor peptides from animal by-products: in vitro and in vivo evaluation. PhD thesis. Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium

(26) Herregods Griet and Co. 2011. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitor activity of gelatin hydrolysates and identification of bioactive peptides. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry. 59 (2): 552-8